In Moving Viewers, Carl Plantinga deftly explores this fascinating question and He moves away from a psychoanalytic explanation and makes powerful use of. In Moving Viewers, Carl Plantinga explores this question and the implications of its answer for aesthetics, the psychology of spectatorship, and the place of movies in culture. He describes the sensual nature of the movies and shows how film emotions are often elicited for rhetorical purposes. Carl Plantinga, Moving Viewers: American Film and the Spectator's Experience. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, , pp.


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Moving Viewers: American Film and the Spectator's Experience - Carl Plantinga - Google книги

Emotions and affects color the viewer's perception of a narrative, making it vibrant, enchanting, exciting, disgusting, suspenseful, fascinating, sad, happy, and so on. Emotions and affects may involve bodily responses, such as an accelerated heartbeat, tensing up and squirming in the seat, tears, laughter, or moaning.

The viewing of a narrative film is not merely an intellectual or cognitive exercise, but one colored by affect and emotion. Emotions enable entertainment and enjoyment. The aesthetic excellence of a film, I would claim, is partly determined by its ability to elicit emotion and affect appropriate carl plantinga moving viewers its narrative focus and concerns.

Moving Viewers: American Film and the Spectator's Experience - Carl R. Plantinga - Google книги

Emotions are intimately tied to our cognition, inferences, carl plantinga moving viewers, and all of the other mental activities that accompany the viewing experience. Emotions and affects have implications for ideas. Since emotions and affects make ideas and images salient and memorable, they play a role in the creation of both cultural and individual memory.

Emotions can also be used for rhetorical purposes.

Moving Viewers: American Film and the Spectator's Experience

People routinely turn to their feelings for guidance when making judgments and decisions. It would not be too bold to say that the movies influence human feeling.

In the short term, the function of emotion and affect is to make film viewing powerful, rather than merely an intellectual exercise. In the long term, such experiences may burn themselves into the memories carl plantinga moving viewers audiences and may become templates for thinking and behavior.

This book offers a theory of affect elicitation in mainstream American narrative fiction films—what some call Hollywood movies.

Moving viewers: American film and the spectator's experience

Although this book is in part a general theory of affect elicitation in film, I concentrate on Hollywood movies for four reasons. First, the film medium embodies works of such diversity that a theory of emotion-elicitation risks becoming unfocused were it to deal with the medium as a whole.

In confining my study to what has been termed "classical Hollywood cinema" and to less mainstream films that draw from that tradition, I hope to be able to shed light on one particular sort of filmmaking and its mechanisms for eliciting affect.

Needless to say, I would hope that the concepts developed here would also be of use in the study of affect in experimental, documentary, and other modes of narrative filmmaking throughout the world. Second, I concentrate on Hollywood film because carl plantinga moving viewers is a particularly emotional cinema.

Moving viewers: American film and the spectator's experience

Mainstream American films rarely offer the kind of distanced, intellectual stance characteristic of some independent films the work of Jim Jarmusch comes to mind or various works of the European or international art cinema such as the cinema of Michelangelo Antonioni, Andrei Tarkovsky, or Wong Kar-wai.

Hollywood films tend to be either 1 robustly sympathetic, eliciting the congruent emotions that accompany strong sympathies with favored characters; 2 action films that ply in excitement, thrills, and spectacle; or 3 humorously ironic, carl plantinga moving viewers up for a distanced perspective with a tendency toward broad and ironic humor.

In any case, mainstream films avoid audience boredom at all costs and attempt to elicit strong, clear if also sometimes carl plantinga moving viewers emotions throughout the viewing process. Third, Hollywood filmmaking is important because it extends its influence around the world.

It intrigues me not so much for its aesthetic excellence although I do think that some Hollywood films are artistically excellent but for its rhetorical and ideological power.

Fourth, since emotion is to some extent culturally constructed, confining this study to the American context reduces, but does not eliminate, the possibility of a kind of carl plantinga moving viewers myopia. As an American, my understanding of the assumptions of American filmmakers in constructing films for maximum emotional power, and of the cultural assumptions American audiences bring to films, is more accurate than it would be for filmmakers and audiences in Japan, India, or Brazil, for example.

I would add that in confining my study to American film, I do not mean to imply that mainstream American filmmaking is carl plantinga moving viewers to any other cinema.


This being said, however, the theory of affect elicitation developed here has clear applications to much of popular narrative cinema. Thus, carl plantinga moving viewers of the processes of emotion elicitation described in the following pages can also illuminate the appeal of Chinese popular films such as Zhang Yimou's Hero Ying xiong, and House of Flying Daggers Shi mian mai fu,the Bollywood spectaculars produced in India, or European popular films such as Sergio Leone's spaghetti Westerns or various James Bond movies.

To speculate about how individual films elicit emotion is clearly an interpretive activity firmly rooted in the arts and humanities—or at least, this is carl plantinga moving viewers I see it. Nonetheless, I draw on scientific and philosophical theories of human emotion and affect and attempt to locate the most persuasive current theories of emotion and affect from the broader academic and scientific arenas.