Clubfoot describes a range of foot abnormalities usually present at birth (congenital) in which your baby's foot is twisted out of shape or position. Congenital Talipes Equinovarus (Clubfoot). Disclaimer: This fact sheet is for education purposes only. Please consult with your doctor or other health. The foot points down and inwards, and the soles of the feet face each other. It is known as talipes equinovarus (TEV) or congenital talipes.


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They will roll, sit, crawl, walk and run at typical stages. What causes club foot? It is not clear what causes club foot.


It may be due to an abnormality in the congenital talipes equinovarus of the soft tissues and bones of the ankle and foot. Club feet are more common in some families or cultural groups. It is likely that there is a genetic component. However, this has not yet been proven. How is club foot diagnosed?

This is most commonly at the week scan. The navicular moves medially on the talus in clubfoot while the calcaneum rotates under the talus in clubfoot The foot is held in adduction and inversion by ligaments and muscles.

Congenital Talipes Equinovarus (Clubfoot)

Muscles that are contracted are triceps surae, tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus and flexor hallucis longus. Further there is an imbalance between the inverter-plantarflexor muscles and the everter-dorsiflexor muscles.

The calf and peroneal muscles are usually poorly developed. The ligaments of the posterior and medial aspect of the ankle are thick and taut.

Congenital Talipes Equinovarus (Clubfoot) | Sydney Children's Hospitals Network

Classification Not all Clubfeet are the same and it is important that all people treating clubfoot use the same terms to describe the different types. Each type of clubfoot has unique characteristics and may need specific treatment.

Early recognition of the type of clubfoot one is dealing with can help guide appropriate treatment. Although there is no universal classification system for clubfoot, clubfoot can be classified according to the nature of the deformity: Children with positional clubfoot typically exhibit unrestricted passive range of motion of forefoot and ankle.

The foot at the time of birth has some deformity but bony alignment is not impacted and foot position is likely corrected through conservative treatment involving a program of stretching, range of motion, and weight bearing. In a small number of cases post conservative treatment the foot needs 1 or 2 Casts to ensure they are maintained in a congenital talipes equinovarus position although in the majority of cases these feet usually correct well congenital talipes equinovarus do not lead to any long lasting, significant impairment.

Within the group of idiopathic clubfeet there is a wide spectrum of impairment depending on severity, as well as whether the clubfoot has been untreated, partially treated, poorly treated, or successfully treated [8].

These are outlined by the Arica Clubfoot Training [8] as follows: Untreated Clubfoot - all clubfeet from birth up to 2 years of age that have had very little or no treatment can be considered as untreated clubfeet.


Untreated, the foot can't move up and down as it normally would, and this can cause the congenital talipes equinovarus to walk on the side of the foot.

Clubfoot describes a range of foot abnormalities usually present at birth congenital in which your baby's foot is twisted out of shape or position. In clubfoot, the tissues connecting the muscles to the bone tendons are shorter than usual.