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Eales disease is as an idiopathic inflammatory venous occlusive disease that affects the peripheral retina. Henry Eales first observed this. Eales disease has been reported predominantly in India, although it has been found in North America and Europe (rare in the modern era).Authors · Diagnosis · Signs · Laboratory test. Eales disease is an idiopathic obliterative vasculopathy that usually involves the peripheral retina of young adults. In , Henry Eales first described it in healthy young men with abnormal retinal veins and recurrent vitreal hemorrhages.
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Eales Disease - EyeWiki
Peripheral retinal inflammation and recurrent vitreous hemorrhages in the absence of other systemic conditions are important defining features. Diagnostic procedures Fluorescein eales disease FA: In the inflammatory stage, extravasation of dye indicates active inflammation.
Venous staining without leakage indicates sclerosed vessels or resolved inflammation.
Laboratory test Laboratory tests are neither sensitive nor eales disease for Eales disease, but may be helpful in detecting systemic causes of retinal vasculitis or peripheral retinal non-perfusion.
Eales disease Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA has been found in the vitreous of patients with Eales disease, the Mantoux test and a chest x-ray may be helpful. Hemoglobin electrophoresis can assess for sickle cell retinopathy, serum angiotensin converting enzyme and a chest x-ray can point to sarcoidosis, the Veneral Disease Research Laboratory test VDRL is useful for syphilis, and anti nuclear antibody ANA can indicate systemic lupus erythematosus SLE.
A distinct protein with an isoelectric point of 5.
Differential diagnosis Vasculitides and retinopathies comprise the differential eales disease Eales disease. Medical therapy In the early or inflammatory stage, oral prednisone Non-steroidal immunosuppressive eales disease are reserved for those in whom steroids are ineffective or contraindicated.
With vascular non-perfusion and retinal neovascularization, intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy may be successful, however its effects may cause vitreoretinal contraction.
In patients with exposure to tuberculosis, anti-tubercular therapy can be given for 9 months, but this is reserved for patients with massive infiltration, nodule formation, and venous obliteration.
Medical follow up Ultransonographic surveillance eales disease the retina when allowing vitreous hemorrhage to clear spontaneously is useful. Use of supplemental antioxidants such as vitamins C and E to help fight oxidative stress on the retina has been advocated in the past but is less commonly recommended in recent times.
Eales Disease - NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders)
Surgery For patients with later stage disease where retinal neovascularization is present, laser scatter photocoagulation peripheral pan retinal photocoagulation in the areas of retinal non-perfusion induces regression of neovascularization.
Moderately strong, micrometer, overlapping laser spots are eales disease to the areas of retinal non-perfusion and direct photocoagulation of new and underlying feeder vessels is suggested.
When optic disc neovascularization is present, panretinal photocoagulation laser is recommended. Eales disease article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract Eales' disease, first described by the British ophthalmologist Henry Eales inis characterized by three overlapping stages of venous inflammation vasculitisocclusion, and retinal neovascularization.
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Diagnosis is mostly clinical and requires exclusion of other systemic or ocular conditions that could present with similar retinal eales disease. In recent years, immunological, molecular biological, and biochemical studies have indicated the role of human leukocyte antigen, retinal autoimmunity, Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome, and free radical-mediated damage in the etiopathogenesis of this disease.
Eales' disease - current concepts in diagnosis and management
Comparisons may be useful for a differential diagnosis. Arteriosclerotic Retinopathy alludes to a series of changes eales disease the retina caused by hardening of the arteries arteriosclerosis serving the retina.
The characteristics of this disorder are bleeding in the retina, thick fluid oozing from the retina, impaired oxygenation of the retina, and eales disease of the walls of the vision impairment.