View solution-manual-embedded-systems-1st-edition-raj-kamal from ECON at Harvard University. SOLUTIONS TO THE EXERCISES Chapter 2 Shailendra Rajput · Embedded Systems by Rajkamal 2nd. Uploaded by. kesavram · Embedded System Design-A Unified Hardware Software Introduction -Frank. Architecture, Programming and Design Raj Kamal. Chapter 10 describes It explains the embedded system development process action plan. Uses of target.


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To start execution of a program, a new process is created in memory.

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When CPU is free OS chooses one from list of the ready state processes and dispatch for execution as per scheduling algorithm.

Instructions are being executed. Only one process execution by CPU at any given moment. Process is waiting for some event to occur e. Blocked process cannot embedded systems rajkamal scheduled for running even if CPU is free.

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It also includes the list of opened file by process in disk. File is opened either for read or write. The present CPU registers, which include program counter and stack pointer are called context. When context saves on the PCB pointed process-stack and register-save area addresses, then embedded systems rajkamal running process stops.

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Context switch is purely overhead because embedded systems rajkamal does not perform any useful work while context switch. Context switch times are highly dependent on hardware. Its speed vary from machine to machine depending on the memory speed, registers to be copied and existence of special instructions.


An application typically is implemented as a separate process with several threads of control. A web embedded systems rajkamal may have one thread display images or text while another thread retrieves data from the network.

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Another example, a word processor may have a thread for displaying graphics, another thread for reading key stroke from the user, and third thread for performing spelling and grammar checking in the embedded systems rajkamal. Each thread has independent parameters -- a thread ID, a program counter, a register set, and a stack, priority and its present status.

A traditional heavyweight Process a kernel-level controlled entity has a single thread of control. If the process has multiple threads of control, it can embedded systems rajkamal more than one task at a time. A thread does not call another thread to run.

Thread Process Thread Process is considered heavy weight Thread is considered light weight Unit of Resource Allocation and of protection Unit of CPU utilization Process creation is very costly in terms of resources Thread creation is very economical Program executing as process are relatively slow Programs executing using thread are comparatively faster Process cannot access the memory area belonging to another process Thread can access the memory area belonging to another thread within the same process Process switching is time embedded systems rajkamal Thread switching is faster One Process can contain several threads One thread can belong to exactly one process Process vs.

An application program consist of the tasks and task behaviors in various states that are controlled by OS. A task is like a process or thread embedded systems rajkamal an OS.

Runs when it is scheduled to run by the OS kernelwhich gives the control of the CPU on a task request system call or a message.

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No task can call another task.