Askep Hypo&Epispadia Tinjauan Pustaka Hipospadia-epispadia EPISPADIA EPISPADIA PPT B3 BAB I Hipospadia dan epispadia Epispadia epispadia. Hypospadia · Epispadia · Agenesis of the penis / clitoris · Bifid penis or clitoris / micropenis · Cryptorchidism / ectopia of the testicles · Inguinal hernia / hydrocele /. A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of .. disorders, such as neural tube defects, hypospadias, epispadia, and abdominal wall defects, such as gastroschisis and exomphalos. A study.


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Aminopterina cytostatic drug with anti- folate effect, was used during the s and s to induce therapeutic abortions.

Abnormalities of female genitalia: Utero-vaginal abnormalities

Studies have shown that heavy metals, elements, nitrates, nitrites, fluoride can be carried through water and epispadia adalah congenital disorders. Nitrate, which is found mostly in drinking water from ground sources, is a powerful teratogen.

A case-control study in rural Australia that was conducted following frequent reports of prenatal mortality and congenital malformations found that those who drank the nitrate-infected groundwater, as opposed to rain water, ran the risk of giving birth to children with central nervous system disorders, muscoskeletal defects, and cardiac defects.

A case-control study on the area found that byleukemia was occurring in the children of Woburn, Massachusetts at a rate that was four times the expected rate of incidence.

Further investigation revealed a connection between the high occurrence of leukemia and an error in water epispadia adalah that delivered water to the town with significant contamination manufacturing waste containing trichloroethylene.

Birth defect

Two reports on fluoride exposure from China, which were controlled to account for the education level of parents, found that children born to parents who were exposed to 4. In studies conducted on rats, higher PPM fluoride in epispadia adalah water lead to increased acetylcholinesterase epispadia adalah, which can alter prenatal brain development.

The most significant effects were noted at a level of 5 PPM.

Other possible sources of prenatal carbon monoxide intoxication are exhaust epispadia adalah from combustion motors, use of dichloromethane paint thinner, varnish removers in enclosed areas, defective gas hot water heaters, indoor barbeques, open flames in poorly-ventilated areas, atmospheric exposure in highly polluted areas.

The effect of chronic exposure to carbon monoxide can depend on the stage of pregnancy in which the mother is exposed.

10 Jenis Penyakit yang Mengharuskan Pria Disunat

Exposure during the embryonic stage can have neurological consequences, such as telencephalic dysgenesis, behavioral difficulties during infancy, and reduction of cerebellum volume. There are also possible skeletal defects that could result from exposure to carbon monoxide during the embryonic stage, such as hand and foot malformations, hip dysplasiahip subluxation, agenisis of a limb, and inferior maxillary atresia with epispadia adalah.

Also, carbon monoxide exposure between days 35 and 40 of embryonic development can lead to an increased risk of the child developing a cleft palate. Exposure to carbon monoxide or polluted ozone exposure can also lead to cardiac defects of the ventrical septal, pulmonary artery and heart valves.

Over a period of 37 years, the Chisso Corporation, a petrochemical and plastics company, contaminated the waters of Minamata Bay with an estimated 27 tons of methylmercury, contaminating the local water supply.

Because methylmercury is a teratogen, the mercury poisoning of those residing by the bay resulted in neurological defects in the offspring. Infants exposed to mercury poisoning in utero showed predispositions to cerebral palsyataxiainhibited psychomotor development, and mental retardation.

Extensive research has been shown that landfills have several negative effects on babies born to mothers living near landfill sites: Studies done around the Love Canal site near Niagara Falls and the Lipari Landfill in New Jersey have shown a higher proportion of low birth babies than communities farther away from landfills.

A study done in California showed a positive correlation between time and quantity of dumping and low birth weights and neonatal deaths. A study in the United Kingdom showed a correspondence between pregnant women living near landfill sites and an increased risk of congenital disorders, such as neural tube defectshypospadiasepispadiaand abdominal wall defectssuch as gastroschisis and exomphalos.

A study conducted on a Welsh community also showed an increase incidence of gastroschisis. Another study was done on twenty-one European hazardous waste sites and showed that those living within three kilometers had an increased risk of giving birth to infants with birth defects and that as distance from the land increased, the risk decreased.

These birth defects included neural tube defects, malformations of the cardiac septa, anomalies of arteries and veins, and chromosomal anomalies. A vast majority of sites are located near poor, mostly black, communities.


A backup generator will make sure the pump is able to continue operating even in times of the epispadia adalah downpours. Home appliances A standard use of the generator epispadia adalah to keep the main home appliances running, such as the refrigerator, freezer, or coffee machine.

Also, if it is possible to keep things like the internet and television running, the time you are left waiting for the power to be switched back on will be less stressful.