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Corporations[ edit ] Trans-national Corporations, nicknamed "transnats", are extremely powerful multinational corporations that first emerge in the midst century.
List of translations
Robinson tracks the evolution of the transnats into what he terms "metanats" metanational. These multinational corporations have grown so large as a kim stanley robinson marte azul of globalization that they have sufficient economic power to take over or strongly manipulate national governments, initially only relatively small third-world governments, but later, larger developed governments too, effectively running whole countries.
In Robinson's future historythe metanational corporations kim stanley robinson marte azul similar to nation-states in some respects, while continually attempting to take over competitors in order to become the sole controller of the interplanetary market.
As the Mars trilogy draws to a close in the midrd century, the metanational corporations are forced by a global catastrophe to concede more democratic powers to their workforces.
Although there are many transnational and metanational corporations mentioned, two play an active role in the development of the plotline. Genetic engineering[ edit ] Genetic engineering is first mentioned in Red Mars; it takes off when Sax creates an alga to withstand the harsh Martian temperature and convert its atmosphere into breathable kim stanley robinson marte azul.
Eventually kim stanley robinson marte azul is done on a massive scale, with thousands of types of GE algae, lichen and bacteria being created to terraform the planet. In Green Mars, GE animals began to be created to withstand the thin Martian atmosphere, and to produce a working planetary-biosphere.
By Blue Mars, GE is commonly being done on humans, willingly, to help them better adapt to the new worlds; to breathe thinner air e. Russellor to see better in the dimmer light of the outer planets.
Other themes[ edit ] The books also speculate on the colonization of other planets and moons in the Solar Systemand include descriptions of settlements or terraforming efforts on CallistoMercuryTitaniaMiranda and Kim stanley robinson marte azul. Toward the end of the last novel, humans are taking sub-light colony ships to other stars, taking advantage of the longevity treatments to survive the trip to their destinations.
Marte azul: Kim Stanley Robinson: : Books
A great portion of Blue Mars is concerned with the effects of extreme longevity on its protagonists, most of kim stanley robinson marte azul have lived over kim stanley robinson marte azul hundred years as a result of repeated longevity treatments.
In particular, Robinson speculates on the psychological effects of ultra-longevity including memory loss, personality change, mental instability, and existential boredom.
Characters[ edit ] The First Hundred[ edit ] The initial colonists from the Ares who established a permanent colony. Many of them later become leaders or exemplary figures in the transformation of Mars or its new society. John Boone[ edit ] An American astronautwho was the first human to walk on Mars in the year He returns a public hero and uses his considerable influence to lobby for a second mission, this time one of colonization.
Boone received a large amount of radiation on his first trip to Mars, more than the recommended dosage according to medical regulations.
However, his celebrity status allows him to skirt this. On the second voyage, Boone is one of the "First Hundred" colonists sent to permanently colonize Mars. His kim stanley robinson marte azul and natural charm yield him an informal leadership role. The narrative then steps back to the First Hundred's voyage to Mars aboard the spaceship Ares.
His ideas continue as a point of reference for the remainder of the trilogy. Boone's character portrayal is complex; in one light, Boone is a stereotypically simple, heroic figure, an everyman hero: