L EXTENSION URBAINE EBOOK!
Modélisation de l'expansion urbaine à l'aide du mode NEDUM-2D utilisation pour l'étude de politiques environnementales. (climat et qualité. Nécessité de l'expansion urbaine. Book. More. Send Message. See more of Nécessité de l'expansion urbaine on Facebook. Log In. or. Create New Account. URBANISATION ET LES AMENAGEMENTS URBAINS. El QUESnOIi Urbanisation - Aménagement urbain -Irr égularit és .. zones d'extension urbaine est im-.
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Introduction Surrounded by nine countries and 9 km of borders, and with a mere 40 km of coastline, the Democratic Republic of Congo is like an enormous enclave nestled at the l extension urbaine of the African continent.
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The position occupied by this country in Central Africa and the colonial heterocentric territorialisation that led to the process of urbanisation have contributed to the role of the capital city of Kinshasa within the framework of the nation as a whole. This brought about the development of urban centres associated with mining activities, and therefore situated in important mining areas, or of centres with a commercial focus, and therefore located in areas that were strategic l extension urbaine communication and transport.
The capital city itself, Kinshasa, owes its fortune to its privileged position on the river, since this opens up thousands of kilometres of potentially navigable routes, l extension urbaine the Congo River and certain of its important tributaries.
Similar dynamics have affected the cities of Kisangani, Bandundu, Mbandaka, Kindu, Boma and Matadi, with Matadi being the location of the most important river port in the country, and the only one that can conduct maritime trade with inland areas.
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Colonialism also resulted in substantial human movement, in all cases corresponding to the same logic that has made the rivers, railways, roads, plantations and cities part of a single fabric oriented towards the exterior. In any case, despite representing one of the factors driving urbanisation, the colonial presence developed an urban network that, even today, contrasts the active, populous border areas of the country with the virtually uninhabited central regions.
Therefore, large uninhabited areas, without infrastructures and in an almost complete state l extension urbaine abandonment, exist in contradistinction to overcrowded urban areas, which lack facilities to ensure an acceptable standard of living for their inhabitants.
The country thus suffers the effects of an uneven population that, also because of its distribution, cannot represent adequate human potential for the satisfactory territorial management of the country Kakese, Taking into consideration the most important cities, it is possible to identify significant core centres.
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The hypothetical linking of these lines creates what has been defined as a "productive circle" Bruneau and Simon, This starts at the Atlantic Ocean and proceeds towards Kinshasa, through the province of Bandundu and the two Kasais to Lubumbashi before heading up towards the Great Lakes region l extension urbaine the L extension urbaine, and finally moves westwards and, at Kisangani, heads downwards once again along the river, towards the capital city.
Modes of development directed away from the centre centrifugal prevail over integration factors and are represented by three spheres of influence: The absence or weakness of connections among the urban settlements hinders the development of intermediate centres and does not offer any advantages for large cities, forcing them, rather, to endure greater burdens, in demographic and other terms.
In both cases, the urban centres have a reciprocal link with the rural centres that are spread within reach of the road network connecting them to the capital, allowing food supplies to reach it, and, vice versa, making it possible for these centres to be supplied with consumables coming from Kinshasa.
Naturally, in addition to this close relationship with Matadi, there is also the major role played by the port, above all in terms of import activities. However, in both cases, the relationships are strong and exist in both directions, including those with Kikwit.
The connections between Kinshasa and the other provincial capitals are very much weaker: With regard to Kinshasa, it could be said that its strongest relationship is with itself, despite its dependence on some other provinces, in particular for its food supply.
Indeed, the capital seems to be focussed inwards, on itself and its own activities, or, in any case, oriented towards external areas that are neither Congolese nor African.
From a natural site to a colonial city The geomorphological, climatic and hydrographic characteristics of the physical environment of the area occupied by the capital have l extension urbaine the expansion of the city.
This issue has been discussed by the writers of l extension urbaine Atlas de Kinshasa Flouriot et al. The most important factor is Malebo Pool formerly Stanley Poola depression that filled with water from the Congo River, causing the circular expansion of the l extension urbaine bed, to a maximum width of 25 km, and creating a dividing point for the waters flowing from the North.
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South of this plain, the city developed and expanded over the course of the decades Lumenga, Another natural l extension urbaine characterising the area in question is the number of rivers by which it is crossed. Finally, hills surround the plains on the southern side, giving the space l extension urbaine sense of a natural amphitheatre Lelo, The commercial and administrative power developed on Mount Ngaliema and Pointe de la Gombe, overlooking the pool.
The European settlements and their progressive expansion were matched by the construction of areas inhabited by African workers situated in the South, on the lower flood plains: Finally, the principle of zonage guided the entire physiognomy of the urban landscape according to areas of different types: Gradually, these areas became the current municipalities of Kinshasa and, in some cases, the only thing that remains of the original bantu villages is the names that were passed on to the quarters of the modern capital.
Their classification, based on their chronological development and their typology, defined in due course by Jean Flouriotwas supplemented after the expansions of the inhabited areas that took l extension urbaine in the period after the publication of the Atlas.