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He wrote 16 books and many more journal articles describing it. Prochaska and Norcross states Rogers "consistently stood for an empirical evaluation of psychotherapy.

Carl Rogers

He and his followers have demonstrated a humanistic approach to conducting therapy and a scientific approach to evaluating therapy need not be incompatible.

The organism reacts to the field as it is experienced and perceived.


This perceptual field is "reality" for the individual. The organism reacts as an organized whole to this phenomenal field. A portion of the total perceptual field gradually becomes differentiated as the self. As a result of interaction with the environment, and particularly as a result of evaluational interaction with others, the structure of the self is formed—an organized, teoria humanism de carl rogers but consistent conceptual pattern of perceptions of characteristics and relationships of the "I" or the "me", together with values attached to these concepts.

The organism has one basic tendency and striving—to actualize, maintain and enhance the experiencing organism. The best vantage point for understanding behavior is from the internal frame of reference of teoria humanism de carl rogers individual.

Carl Rogers - Wikipedia

Behavior is basically the goal-directed attempt of the organism to satisfy its needs as experienced, in the field as perceived. Emotion accompanies, and in general facilitates, such goal directed behavior, the kind of emotion being related to the perceived significance of the behavior for teoria humanism de carl rogers maintenance and enhancement of the organism.

The values attached to experiences, and the values that are a part of the self-structure, in some instances, are values experienced directly by the organism, and in some instances are values introjected teoria humanism de carl rogers taken over from others, but perceived in distorted fashion, as if they had been experienced directly.

As experiences occur in the life of the individual, they are either, a symbolized, perceived and organized into some relation to the self, b ignored because there is no perceived relationship to the self structure, c denied symbolization or given distorted symbolization because the experience is inconsistent with the structure of the self.

Most of the ways of behaving that are adopted by the organism are those that are consistent with the concept of self. In some instances, behavior may be brought about by organic experiences and needs which have not been symbolized. Such behavior may be inconsistent with the structure of the self but in such instances the behavior is not "owned" teoria humanism de carl rogers the individual.

Psychological adjustment exists when the concept of the self is such that all the sensory and visceral experiences of the organism are, or may be, assimilated on a symbolic level into a consistent relationship with the concept of self.

Psychological maladjustment exists when the organism denies awareness of significant sensory and visceral experiences, which consequently are not symbolized and organized into the gestalt of the self structure.

When this situation exists, there is a basic or potential psychological tension. Any experience which is inconsistent with the organization of the structure of the self may be perceived as a threat, and the more of these perceptions there are, the more rigidly the self structure is organized to maintain itself.

Under certain conditions, involving primarily complete absence of threat to the self structure, experiences which are inconsistent with it may be perceived and examined, and the structure of self revised to assimilate and include such experiences.

When the individual perceives and accepts into one consistent and integrated system all her sensory and visceral experiences, then she is necessarily more understanding of others and is more accepting of others as separate individuals.

As the individual perceives and accepts into his self structure more of his organic experiences, he finds that he is replacing his present value system—based extensively on introjections which have teoria humanism de carl rogers distortedly symbolized—with a continuing organismic valuing process.

In relation to No.

The main issue is the development of a self-concept and the progress from an undifferentiated self to being fully differentiated. It is a gestalt which is available to awareness though not necessarily in awareness. Teoria humanism de carl rogers is a fluid and changing gestalt, a process, but at any given moment it is a specific entity.

Rogers, [19] In the development of the self-concept, he saw conditional and unconditional positive regard as key.

Those raised in an environment of unconditional positive regard have the opportunity teoria humanism de carl rogers fully actualize themselves. Those raised in an environment of conditional positive regard feel worthy only if they match conditions what Rogers describes as conditions of worth that have been laid down for them by others.

Fully functioning person[ edit ] Optimal development, as referred to in proposition 14, results in a certain process rather than static state.